Designing building-integrated photovoltaics with Energy3D

Fig. 1: An example of solar facade.
Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) represents an innovative way to think and design buildings as both human dwellings and power plants. In BIPV, solar panels or photovoltaic thin films are used to replace conventional constructional materials in parts of the building envelope such as roofs, walls, and even windows. Designing new buildings nowadays increasingly includes BIPV elements to offset operational costs. Existing buildings can also be retrofitted with BIPV (e.g., replacing glass curtain walls with solar panels). BIPV is expected to grow more important in architectural design and building engineering.

Fig. 2: An example of solar curtain walls
We are developing modeling capabilities in Energy3D to support the design, simulation, and analysis of BIPV. Figures 1 and 2 in this article show a few cases that demonstrate these capabilities in their primitive forms. Considering BIPV is relatively new and a lot of research is still under way to develop and test new ideas and technologies, we expect the development of these capabilities in Energy3D will be a long-term effort that will be integrated with latest research and development in the industry.
Fig.3: Power balancing throughout the day.

As the first step towards that long-term vision, the current version of Energy3D has already allowed you to add solar panel racks to any planar surface, being it horizontal, vertical, or slanted. Running a simulation for any day, you will be able to predict the daily output of all the solar panels. You can also compare the outputs of selected arrays. For example, if you want to track down on which side solar panels produce the most at a given time during the day, you can compare them in a graph. Figure 3 shows a comparison of the solar arrays in the model shown in Figure 1. As you can see, the east-facing array produces peak energy in the morning whereas the west-facing array produces peak energy in the afternoon. In this case, the BIPV solution ensures that the photovoltaic system generates some electricity at different times of the day.

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