Tag Archives: data

Exploring Hawai’i (and the rest of Earth) with Seismic Explorer

Kilauea, Hawai’i’s youngest and most active volcano, has been continuously erupting since 1983. But it made news again recently with large earthquakes and lava fountains erupting in residential areas.

Have you ever wondered what’s going on with Kilauea? Can scientists predict when and where a volcano will next erupt?

You can use Seismic Explorer to explore the locations of volcanoes and earthquakes in the Hawaiian Islands. In this zoomed-in view from Seismic Explorer, you can see the locations of Hawai’i’s active volcanoes.

Seismic Explorer, zoomed in to show the Hawaiian Islands. Triangles mark the locations of Hawai’i’s five active volcanoes. Triangles are color-coded by most recent eruption date.

Launch Seismic Explorer and click the Play button to show the earthquakes that have occurred in the Hawaiian Islands since January 2018. Using just the earthquake data, can you tell when and where the volcano erupted?

Why is Kilauea erupting? How did the Hawaiian Islands form?

The Hawaiian Islands are the result of a geological hotspot. At hotspots, magma rises to the surface and breaks through Earth’s crust, resulting in volcanoes.

If you choose the ocean basemap map type in Seismic Explorer, you’ll be able to see that the Hawaiian Islands are on one end of a long chain of underwater mountains. (The lighter colors represent higher elevations.)

Seismic Explorer view of the North Pacific Ocean basin, ocean basemap view. Hawai’i is at one end of a long chain of underwater mountains. Use the zoom tools to zoom out to a larger view.

The Hawaiian Islands are the youngest mountains in this chain. The current volcanic activity shows that the Hawaiian Islands are still being formed.

So, why is there a chain of islands instead of one big island? Has the hotspot moved? You can use Seismic Explorer to get some clues to answer this question as well.

Hawai’i is located in the middle of the Pacific Plate, one of Earth’s many tectonic plates. Tectonic plates are composed of the crust (the part of Earth you can see) and the upper part of the mantle. Using the plate boundaries and plate movement data, you can explore the motion of the Pacific Plate.

Seismic Explorer, zoomed out to show the Pacific Ocean. Showing plate boundaries and plate movement. Movement arrows show that the Pacific Plate is moving to the northwest.

The detailed plate movement arrows show that the Pacific Plate has been moving to the northwest. The hotspot has remained stationary, and as the Pacific Plate has moved, the island chain has grown. Older islands in the chain were moved away from the hotspot, and over millions of years, they were eroded so that they’re no longer above sea level.

Even though Seismic Explorer shows only the current activity, you can use the data to make inferences about the past and predictions about the future.

Using data to figure out the past
You may have noticed that there is a bend in the underwater island chain. Can you explain what happened there? How must the Pacific Plate have been moving at that time?

Using data to predict the future
Can you use the plate motion data to predict the location of the next active volcano in this chain?

Using Seismic Explorer to explore other areas on Earth

Geological hotspots are the least common places for volcanoes. Most volcanoes on Earth are the result of convergent plate boundaries, where two plates move towards each other, like the volcanoes of Japan and the Andes Mountains of South America. Some volcanoes form along divergent boundaries, like the volcanoes of Iceland.

You can use Seismic Explorer to explore all of Earth’s volcanoes and earthquakes. Try using the cross section tool to get a 3D underground view of earthquakes.

Seismic Explorer, showing the area of the cross section.

Seismic Explorer, showing a 3D view of the earthquakes under Hawai’i.

How are the patterns of earthquakes different at different types of volcanoes? Compare the Hawaiian volcanoes to volcanoes in the Andes to volcanoes in Iceland. (Spoiler alert – the views are very different!) Along the plate boundaries, make sure to draw your cross section perpendicular to the lines of earthquakes – that way, you’ll be able to see the patterns of earthquakes along each boundary.

If you’re interested in exploring more about plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanoes, check out the GEODE activities in the STEM Resource Finder. You’ll find links to models, like Seismic Explorer, and classroom activities. You’ll also find links to sign up to be a field test teacher and help us test the latest plate tectonics models and curricula.

The GEODE project, funded by the National Science Foundation, is developing computational models of plate tectonics and associated curricula for the middle and high school level.

 

 

Exploring hurricane datasets in the classroom

In August 2017, Hurricane Harvey evolved from a series of thunderstorms to one of the first major hurricane landfalls in the United States since early 2005. Right on the heels of Harvey, Hurricane Irma blasted through the Caribbean and onto the U.S. mainland, striking Florida in early September.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which aims to understand and predict changes in weather, provides educational resources and datasets about hurricanes.

The dataset for 2005-2015 is available in our Common Online Data Analysis Platform (CODAP), a free and open-source web-based data analysis tool, geared toward middle and high school students.

Screenshot of NOAA hurricane data embedded in our Common Online Data Analysis Platform.

With all the current catastrophic news about hurricanes, students have lots of questions. Use the data to help them understand the history and characteristics of storms.

  • To investigate the paths that hurricanes generally follow, use the slider to change the year from 2005 to 2015, and watch the data points on the map, which represent the general path of the storms.
  • To determine the storm with the highest wind speed, click the top data point in the wind speed graph, which plots year against highest wind speed. Since data is linked across multiple representations, the data point is highlighted on the graph and in the table, so you can find the name and date of that particular storm (e.g., Wilma, October 15, 2005, with top wind speeds of 160 mph).
  • To learn which year had the most or least number of storms, look at the storms per year graph. Notice an outlier in the data with year 2005, which had 15 storms during that season. (Note: This was the same year as Hurricane Katrina. Select KATRINA in the table and make sure the slider is set to 2005, then see the path of the hurricane graphed on the map.)
  • To see a relationship between wind and pressure, click on the Graph button. Drag the Maximum Wind column header from the table to the vertical (y) axis until the axis turns yellow. Drag the Minimum Pressure to the horizontal (x) axis until the axis turns yellow. (Note: you may need to scroll to the far right of the Case Table to see these columns.) 

Analyzing and interpreting data is one of the key science and engineering practices of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), and representing and interpreting data are featured throughout the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for mathematics. Students can use publicly available datasets from storms and other weather events to learn more about the world around them.

Open invitation to software developers

CODAP Screenshot
Our Common Online Data Analysis Platform (CODAP) offers easy-to-use web-based software that makes it possible for students in grades 6 through college to visualize, analyze, and ultimately learn from data. Whether the source of data is a game, a map, an experiment, or a simulation, CODAP provides an immersive, exploratory experience with dynamically linked data representations, including graphs, maps, and tables. CODAP is not dependent on specific content, so data analysis can be integrated into math, science, history, or economics classrooms.

CODAP is HTML5, making use of JavaScript, HTML, and CSS3. Various open source libraries are part of CODAP, including SproutCore, JQuery, Raphaël, Leaflet, and several other smaller libraries. CODAP uses SproutCore as an application framework. You can deploy CODAP as a static website with no server interaction. CODAP can be configured to store documents on your local device, or integrated with an online server for cloud-based document management. It can also log user actions to a server specified in a configuration file.

Our goal is to create a community of curriculum and software developers committed to ensuring that students from middle school through college have the knowledge and skills to learn with data across disciplines. We need your help!

Get involved