Posts Tagged ‘Energy2D’

Getting sensor data out of Energy2D

February 9th, 2014 by Charles Xie
Figure 1: Copy data from Energy2D.
Since a few users asked if the simulation data in Energy2D can be exported to other applications such as Excel, I have added a feature to the app for extracting virtual sensor data as multi-column time series data. For the user's convenience, there are three different ways of getting these data:
  1. When right-clicking on a sensor, the "View Data..." from the popup menu returns the data that has been recorded by the selected sensor.
  2. When right-clicking on a spot not occupied by a sensor, the "View Data..." from the popup menu returns a tabbed pane that contains all the sensor data -- different types of sensor are organized in different tabs.
  3. When the translucent graph is open, clicking the View Data button on the graph window's control panel returns the data recorded by all the sensors of the selected type, in consistent with the current display of the data in the graph window.
Figure 2: Paste data into Excel.
Regardless of which way you use, use the "Copy Data" button at the bottom of the data window to copy the data (Figure 1) and paste it into Excel. Once you get the data into Excel, you can process and plot them in any way you want (Figure 2). This feature is very handy if you need to combine data from multiple simulations into a single graph.

Note: This feature only works for the app. For security reason, the embedded applet is not allowed to access the System Clipboard (this is understandable, because people often copy and paste important information!)

Fireplaces at odd with energy efficiency? An Energy2D simulation

January 18th, 2014 by Charles Xie
In the winter, a fireplace is the coziest place in the house when we need some thermal comfort. It is probably something hard to remove from our living standards and our culture (it is supposed to be the only way Santa comes into your house). But is the concept of fireplace -- an ancient way of warming up a house -- really a good idea today when the entire house is heated by a modern distributed heating system? In terms of energy efficiency, the advice from science is that it probably isn't.

Figure 1. A fire is lit in the fireplace.
When the wood burns, a fireplace creates an updraft force that draws the warm air from the house to the outside through the chimney. This creates a "negative pressure" that draws the cold air from the outside into the house through small cracks in the building envelope. This is called the stack effect. So while you are getting radiation heat from the fireplace, you are also losing heat in the house at a faster rate through convection. As a result, your furnace has to work harder to keep other parts of your house warm.

Figure 2. No fire.
Our Energy2D tool can be used to investigate this because it can simulate both the stack effect and thermostats. Let's just create a house heated by a heating board on the floor as shown in the figures in this article. The heating board is controlled by a thermostat whose temperature sensor is positioned in the middle of the house. A few cracks were purposely created in the wall on the right side to let the cold air from the outside in. Their sizes were exaggerated in this simulation.

Figure 1 shows the duty cycles of the heating board within two hours when the house was heated from 0 °C to 20 °C with a fire lit in the fireplace. A heating run is a segment of the temperature curve in which the temperature increases, indicating the house is being heated. In our simulation, the duration of a heating run is approximately the same under different conditions. The difference is in the durations of the cooling runs. A more drafty house tends to have shorter cooling runs as it loses energy more quickly. Let's just count those heating runs. Figure 1 shows that 15 heating runs were recorded in this case.

Figure 2 shows the case when there was no fire in the fireplace and the fireplace door was closed. 13 heating runs were recorded in this case.

What does this result mean? This means that, in order to keep the house at 20 °C, you actually need to spend a bit more on your energy bill when the fireplace is burning. This is kind of counter-intuitive, but it may be true, especially when you have a large drafty house.

Figure 3. In a house without cracks...
How do we know that the increased energy loss is due to the cracks? Easy. We can just nudge the window and the wall on the right to close the gaps. Now we have a tight house. Re-run the simulation shows that  only 11 heating runs were recorded (Figure 3). In this case, you can see in Figure 3 that the cooling runs lasted longer, indicating that the rate of heat loss decreased.

Note that this Energy2D simulation is only an approximation. It does not consider the radiation heat gain from the fireplace. And it assumes that the fire would burn irrespective of air supply. But still, it illustrates the point.

This example demonstrates how useful Energy2D may be for all precollege students. In creating this simulation, all I did is to drag and drop, change some parameters, run the simulation, and then count the heating runs. As simple as that, this tool could be a game changer in science and engineering education in high schools or even middle schools. It really creates an abundance of learning opportunities for students to experiment with concepts and designs that would otherwise be inaccessible. Similar experiences are currently only possible at college level with expensive professional software that typically cost hundreds or even thousands of dollars for just a single license. Yet, according to some of our users, our Energy2D rivals those expensive tools to some extent (I would never claim that myself, though).

Dart projects of Energy2D and Quantum Workbench announced

January 8th, 2014 by Charles Xie
Last month, Google announced Dart 1.0, a new programming language for the Web that aims to greatly accelerate Web development. Dart uses HTML5 as the UI. It can either run on the Dart Virtual Machine being built in Chrome or be compiled into JavaScript to run in other browsers. Dart can also be used to create standalone apps (I guess it is meant to be the main programming language for Google's own Chrome OS) or server-side software. An ECMA Technical Committee (TC 52) has been formed to make Dart into an international standard.

This is the moment I have been waiting for. As a developer with C/Java background, I am not convinced that JavaScript is made for large, complex projects (as Web programming seems to be moving towards) -- even after reading many articles and books about JavaScript. The facts that after ten years Google Docs still has only a tiny fraction of functionality of Word and basic functions such as positioning an image have not improved much suggest that its JavaScript front end has probably reached its limit.

Don't get me wrong. JavaScript is an excellent choice for creating interactive Web experiences. I use JavaScript extensively to create Web interfaces for interacting with the Energy2D applet. But I think it is in general healthy for the developer community if we are given more options. Recognizing the weaknesses of JavaScript, the community has already created CoffeeScript and TypeScript (supersets of JavaScript that strips off unproductive features of JavaScript) that also require compilation into native JavaScript. Dart is Google's solution to these problems that should be welcomed. To a Java developer like me, Dart provides a much better option because it returns the power of class-based object-oriented programming to developers who must create Web-based front ends. What is even sweeter is that its SDK provides a familiar Eclipse-based programming platform that makes many developers feel at home.

Excited about the potential of this new language (plus it is from Google and will be highly performant on Chrome), I am announcing the development of the Dart versions of our Energy2D and Quantum Workbench software. These software are based on complex mathematical solutions of extremely complex partial differential equations and will hopefully provide some showcases to anyone interested in Dart. This is not to say the development of the Java versions will cease. We are committed to develop and maintain both Dart and Java versions.

Hopefully 2014 will be an exciting year for us!

Season’s greetings from Energy2D

December 14th, 2013 by Charles Xie
I have been so swamped in fund raising these days that I haven't been able to update this blog for more than two months. Since it is the time of the year again, I thought I should just share a holiday video made by Matthew d'Alessio, a professor at California State University Northridge, using our signature software Energy2D.

The simulator currently attracts more than 5,000 unique visitors each month, a number that probably represents a sizable portion of engineering students studying the subject of heat transfer on the planet. Over the past year, I have received a lot of encouraging emails from Energy2D's worldwide users. Some of them even compared it with well-known engineering programs. Franco Landriscina at the University of Trieste has written Energy2D into his recent Springer book "Simulation and Learning: A Model-Centered Approach."

I am truly grateful for these positive reactions. I want to say "Thank You" for all your nice words. There is nothing more rewarding than hearing from you on this fascinating subject of fluid dynamics and heat transfer. Rest assured that the development of this program will resume irrespective of its funding. In 2014, I hope to come up with a better radiation solver, which I have been thinking for quite a long time. It turns out that simulating radiation is much more difficult than simulating convection!

Here is a tutorial video in Spanish made by Gabriel Concha.

Engineers use Energy2D to simulate rocket mass heaters

April 24th, 2013 by Charles Xie
Link to simulation
A rocket mass heater is an innovative and highly efficient space heating system, which is popular among natural building DIYers since its invention in 1970s. A number of engineers who are interested in rocket stove design have used our Energy2D software to visualize the thermal physics involved.
Link to simulation

Martin Karl Waldenburg from Germany has designed a series of simplified rocket stove simulations. With his permission, we have published his simulations on our Energy2D website. This blog post provides links to three of his simulations. Another one was created by Pinhead of the Rocket Stove Forum (who also gave us permission to publish his simulation).

Link to simulation
Link to simulation
Since Energy2D hasn't supported chemical reactions yet, in all these simulations, burning is simulated using a heater with a fan to approximate the driving pressure due to combustion.

We will continue to work on Energy2D's computational engine and improve its graphical user interface. Currently, we are plowing through the math needed to model thermal radiation, chemical reactions, and phase changes. Once these features are added, we hope more people will find it useful, educational, and entertaining.

Using Energy2D to simulate solar updraft towers

March 2nd, 2013 by Charles Xie
The day/night cycle of an SUT
The solar updraft tower is a new-concept clean energy power plant for generating electricity from the sun. Sunshine falling on a greenhouse collector structure around the base of a tall chimney heats the air within it. The resulting convection causes air to rise up in the tower, driving wind turbines to produce electricity. In 2011, a plan of building a massive solar updraft tower in Arizona was announced (for more information, see this CNN report: Can hot air be the free fuel of the future?).

Compared with other solar technologies, solar updraft towers have many significant advantages. For example, it does not require water; it can be built in barren areas; it can still generate electricity after dark; its lifetime is much longer than solar panel arrays; and so on. Engineering-wise, it is a sound concept. The rest is a political will to get it banked and constructed. Let's hope it wouldn't take too long.
Streamline analysis of air intake

Instead of waiting for it to come true, why not go to our Energy2D website and see a bunch of simulations? You can even start to investigate it with our powerful Energy2D software. For example, you can turn the sunlight on and off to investigate how the heat absorbed during the day can still be released at night to drive the turbines. You can adjust the height of the tower to get an idea of why engineers want to build an insanely tall tower that rivals the height of Burj Khalifa in Dubai, the tallest building in the world. You can even use Energy2D's comprehensive analysis tools to study what happens when you block one of the air intake entrances.

The opportunities of inquiry with Energy2D are practically endless. You don't have to wait for someone to erect a solar updraft tower to explore about the technology -- you can do it now and the concept of a new technology is only a few mouse clicks away from you. Why not show these simulations and your investigations to your students to get them interested in clean energy today?

Using Energy2D to simulate Trombe walls

February 26th, 2013 by Charles Xie

A Trombe wall is a sun-facing wall separated from the outdoors by glass and an air space. It consists a solar absorber (such as a dark surface) and two vents for air in the house to circulate through the space and carry the solar heat to warm the house up. In a way, a Trombe wall is like a machine that uses air as a convey belt of thermal energy harvested from the sun. Trombe walls are very simple and easy to make and are sometimes used in passive solar green buildings.


Hiding sophisticated power of computational fluid dynamics behind a simple graphical user interface, our Energy2D software can easily simulate how a Trombe wall works. The two images in this blog post show screenshots of a Trombe wall simulation and its closeup version. You can play the simulation on this page and download the models there. If you open the models using Energy2D, you should be able to see how easy it is to tweak the models and create realistic heat flow simulations.

Solar chimneys operate based on similar principles. Energy2D should be able to simulate solar chimneys as well. Perhaps this would be a good challenge to you. (I will post a solar chimney simulation later if I figure out how to do it.)

Energy2D to reach thousands of schools

August 17th, 2012 by Charles Xie
Thermoregulation
Project Lead The Way (PLTW) is the leading provider of rigorous and innovative Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education curricular programs used in middle and high schools across the US. The PLTW Pathway To Engineering (PTE) program includes a foundational course called the Principles of Engineering (POE) designed for 10-11th grade students. PLTW curriculum currently reaches 4,780 schools.

According to Bennett Brown, Associate Director of Curriculum and Instruction of PLTW, our Energy2D software will be adopted in the POE curriculum to support a variety of core engineering concepts including power, energy, heat transfer, controls, and environmental factors.
Solar heating cycles

Since the release of the first alpha version in 2011, Energy2D has already been used by thousands of users worldwide, but the collaboration with PLTW will be a big step forward for Energy2D to reach more students. The timing of this collaboration is particularly important to engineering tools such as Energy2D, as--for the first time--engineering has been officially written into the US K-12 Science Education Standards. Once the Standards roll out, thousands of teachers will be looking for leading-edge tools that can help them teach engineering. This will be a great opportunity for Energy2D.

Why is Energy2D so special that people want to use it? Our website provides many self-explanatory examples. But there is one hidden gem I want to emphasize here: Its computational engine is based on good algorithms I devised specially for this simulator. Its heat solver can be so accurate that a simulation can maintain the total energy of an isolated system at a level as accurate as 99.99% for as long as it runs, regardless of the complexity of the structures in the system! The fact that the sum of energy from all the 10,000 grid cells remains a constant after billions of individual calculation steps reflects the holy grail of science and engineering. If anything, engineering is about accuracy. A good engineering tool should be able to give students a good engineering habit of mind and accuracy should be a paramount part of it.

The first Earth science simulation in Energy2D is here: Mantle convection!

August 8th, 2012 by Charles Xie
It is my goal to make the Energy2D software a powerful simulation tool for a wide audience. Last week I have added some engineering examples and blogged about them.

Last night I came up with an idea for simulating mantle convection, the slow creeping motion of Earth's rocky mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the Earth to the surface. It turned out that the idea worked out.
 
This blog post demonstrates the first geoscience simulation created using Energy2D. The two screenshots show mantle convection at different times. The streamlines in the second image represent the convective currents. From the simulation, you can see the gradual cooling of the core due to mantle convection--This happens in the time frame of billions of years, but a computer simulation can show it in a few seconds. For simplicity, we don't distinguish the inner core and the outer core in this model. Later, we can build a more complex one that includes these subtle details.

The simulation is available online at: http://energy.concord.org/energy2d/mantle.html. Take a look and stay tuned for more Earth science simulations--brought to you by Energy2D!

Energy2D V1.0 released!

August 3rd, 2012 by Charles Xie
The first stable version of Energy2D, an open-source and free heat transfer simulation tool made possible by funding from the National Science Foundation, is now available for download. The program can be installed as a desktop app, which can be used to create high-quality simulations that can be deployed on the Internet as applets. It comes with about 40 templates to help you get started to design your own simulations. The Energy2D website provides plenty of examples that show how you can integrate your simulations on your websites. The examples cover a wide range of topics in heat transfer, fluid dynamics, and thermal engineering. Thermal engineering is a major feature added recently and will be expanded in the future. The example to the right, "How solar cycles affect the duty cycle of a thermostat," showcases this new feature.

When you click the "Java Webstart Installer" on the website, the software will be automatically downloaded and installed on your desktop. The website's Download page has detailed information for how to publish your Energy2D simulations or integrate them with your web stuff.

If you have used the Energy2D app before, you will need to remove the previous installation in order to enjoy the convenience of full OS integration that this version offers. For Windows users, go to "Control Panel > Java." For Mac users, go to the Java Preference. In either case, you can find the previous installation in "Temporary Internet Files."

If you have just used the online applets on our website but haven't downloaded the app, there is nothing you need to remove. Although it is perfectly fine to use the online applets as they are, we think you should try the app--It will give you the full ability to create, design, and test.