Tag Archives: Photovoltaics

Importing and analyzing models created by other CAD software in Energy3D: Part 2

Fig.1: The Gherkin (London, UK)
In Part I, I showed that Energy3D can import COLLADA models and perform some analyses. This part shows that Energy3D (Version 6.3.5 or higher) can conduct full-scale solar radiation analysis for imported models. This capability officially makes Energy3D a useful daylight and solar simulation tool for sustainable building design and analysis. Its ability to empower anyone to analyze virtually any 3D structure with an intuitive, easy-to-use interface and speedy simulation engines opens many opportunities to engage high school and college students (or even middle school students) in learning science and engineering through solving authentic, interesting real-world problems.
Fig. 2: Beverly Hills Tower (Qatar)

There is an ocean of 3D models of buildings, bridges, and other structures on the Internet (notably from SketchUp's 3D Warehouse, which provides thousands of free 3D models that can be exported to the COLLADA format). These models can be imported into Energy3D for analyses, which greatly enhances Energy3D's applicability in engineering education and practice.

Fig. 3: Solar analysis of various houses
The images in this post show examples of different types of buildings, including 30 St Mary Axe (the Gherkin) in London, UK (Figure 1) and the Beverly Hills Tower in Qatar (Figure 2). Figure 3 shows the analyses of a number of single-family houses. All the solar potential heat maps were calculated and generated based on the total solar radiation that each unit area on the building surfaces receive during the selected day (June 22).

These examples should give you some ideas about what the current version of Energy3D is already capable of doing in terms of solar energy analysis to support, for example, the design of rooftop solar systems and building solar facades.

In the months to come, I will continue to enhance this analytic capacity to provide even more powerful simulation and visualization tools. Optimization, which will automatically identify the boundary meshes (meshes that are on the building envelope), is currently on the way to increase the simulation speed dramatically.

Importing and analyzing models created by other CAD software in Energy3D: Part 1

Fig. 1: Solarize a COLLADA model in Energy3D
Fig.2: A house imported from SketchUp's 3D Warehouse
Energy3D is a relatively simple CAD tool that specializes in building simulation and solar simulation. Its current support for architectural design is fine, but it has limitations. It is never our intent to reinvent the wheel and come up with yet another CAD tool for architecture design. Our primary interest is in physics modeling, artificial intelligence, and computational design. Many users have asked if we can import models created in other CAD software such as SketchUp and then analyze them in Energy3D.

Fig. 3: A house imported from SketchUp's 3D Warehouse
I started this work yesterday and completed the first step today. Energy3D can now import any COLLADA models (*.dae files) on top of a foundation. The first step was the inclusion of the mesh polygons in the calculation of solar radiation. The polygons should be able to cast shadow on any object existing in an Energy3D model. This means that, if you have a 3D model of a neighboring building to the target building, you can import it into Energy3D so that it can be taken into consideration when you design solar solutions for your target. Once you import a structure, you can always translate and rotate it in any way you want by dragging its foundation, like any existing class of object in Energy3D.

Fig. 4: A house at night in Energy3D
Due to some math difficulties, I haven't figured out how to generate a solar radiation heat map overlaid onto the external surfaces of an imported structure that are exposed to the sun. This is going to be a compute-intensive task, I think. But there is a shortcut -- we can add Energy3D's solar panels to the roof of an imported building (Figure 1). In this way, we only have to calculate for these solar panels and all the analytic capabilities of Energy3D apply to them. And we can get pretty good results pretty quickly.

Fig. 5: A 3D tree imported from SketchUp's 3D Warehouse
Figures 2-4 show more examples of how houses designed with SketchUp look like in Energy3D after they are imported. This interoperability makes it possible for architects to export their work to Energy3D to take advantage of its capabilities of energy performance analysis.

Being able to import any structure into Energy3D also allows us to use more accurate models for landscapes. For instance, we can use a real 3D tree model that has detailed leaves and limbs, instead of a rough approximation (Figure 5). Of course, using a more realistic 3D model of a tree that has tens of thousands of polygons slows down the graphic rendering and simulation analysis. But if you can afford to wait for the simulation to complete, Energy3D will eventually get the results for you.

Accelerating solar farm design in Energy3D with a new model of solar panel racks

Fig. 1: A solar farm of 5,672 solar panels on 8/16 in Boston
The solar simulation in Energy3D is based on discretizing a solar panel, a reflector, a solar water heater, a window, or any other surface into many small cells (mesh), calculating the solar radiation to the centers of the cells, and then summing the results up to obtain the total energy output. For example, a photovoltaic solar panel can be divided into 6x10 cells (this is also because many residential versions of solar panels are actually designed to have 6x10 solar cells). The simulation runs speedily when we have only a few dozen solar panels such is in the case of rooftop solar systems.

Fig. 2: Simulation of 5,672 solar panels on 8/16 in Boston
Unlike rooftop solar systems, large-scale solar farms typically involve thousands of solar panels (mega utility-scale solar farms may have hundreds of thousands of solar panels). If we use the same discretization method for each panel, the simulation would run very slowly (e.g., the speed drops to 1% when the number of solar panels are 100 times more). This slowdown basically makes Energy3D impractical to use by those who cannot afford to wait such as students in the classroom who need to get the results quickly.

Fig. 3: The result of the accelerated model
Fig. 4: The result of the original model
Luckily, solar panel arrays are often installed on parallel long racks in many solar farms (Figure 1). For such solar panel arrays, a lot of calculations could be spared without compromising the overall accuracy of the simulation too much. This allows us to develop a more efficient model of numeric simulation to do solar radiation calculation and even explore methods that use non-uniform meshes to better account for areas that are more likely to be shaded, such as the lower parts of the solar panel arrays. By implementing this new model, we have succeeded in speeding up the calculation dramatically. For example, the daily solar simulation of a solar farm consisting of more than 5,000 solar panels took about a second on my Surface Book computer (Figure 2 -- in this scene I deliberately added a couple of trees so that you can see the result of shading). With the previous model I would probably have to wait for hours to see the result and the graphics card of my computer would take a very deep breath to render more than 5,000 dynamic textures. This is a huge improvement.

Figures 3 and 4 show a comparison of the simulation results between the new and old models. Quantitatively, the total output of the new model is 93.63 kWh for the selected day of June 22 in Boston, compared with 93.25 kWh from the original model. Qualitatively, the color shading patterns that represent the distribution of solar radiation in the two cases are also similar.

The new rack model supports everything about solar panels. It has a smart user interface that allows the user to draw racks of any size and in any direction -- it automatically trims off any extra length so that you will never see a partial solar panel on a rack. When tracking systems are used with long, linear racks, there is only one way to do it -- horizontal single-axis tracker (HSAT). The new model can handle HSAT with the same degree of speed-up. For other trackers such as the vertical single-axis tracker (VSAT) or the altazimuth dual-axis trackers (AADAT), the speed-up will not be as significant, however, as the inter-rack shading is more dynamically complex and each rack must be treated independently.

Designing solar farms and solar canopies with Energy3D

Fig. 1: Single rack
Many solar facilities use racking systems to hold and move arrays of solar panels. Support of racks is now available in our Energy3D software. This new feature allows users to design many different kinds of solar farm, solar park, and solar canopy, ranging from small scale (a few dozen) to large scale (a few thousand).

Fig. 2: Multiple racks
Mini solar stations often use a single rack to hold an array of solar panels (Figure 1). This may be the best option when we cannot install solar panels on the building's roof. You probably have seen this kind of setup at some nature centers where the buildings are often shadowed by surrounding trees.

If you have more space, you probably can install multiple racks (Figure 2), especially when you are considering using altazimuth dual-axis solar trackers to drive them. This configuration is also seen in some large photovoltaic power stations.

Fig. 3: Rack arrays
Larger solar farms typically use arrays of long racks (Figure 3). Each rack can be driven by a horizontal single-axis tracker. Using taller racks usually requires larger inter-rack spacing, which may be an advantage as it allows maintenance trucks to drive through. In a recent experiment, SunPower experimented with how to grow crops or raise animals in the inter-rack space with their Oasis 3.0 system. So arrays of taller racks may be desirable if you want to combine green energy with green agriculture.

Fig. 4: Solar canopy above a parking lot
If you raise the height of a rack, it becomes a so-called solar canopy that provides shading for human activities like the green canopies of trees do. The most common type of solar canopy converts parking lots into power stations and provides shelters from the sun for cars in the summer (Figure 4).

Designing solar canopies for schools' parking lots may be a great engineering project for students to undertake. This is being integrated into our Solarize Your School Project. In fact, Figure 4  shows a real project in Natick High School in Massachusetts. The hypothetical design has more than 1,500 solar panels (each of them has the size of 0.99 x 1.96 m) and costs over a million dollars.

Modeling Charlottesville High School’s solar project using Energy3D

Schools have plenty of roof space that can be turned into small power plants to provide electricity to students. Many schools have already taken actions. Some teachers even use the subject matter in their teaching. But in most cases, students are not profoundly involved in solarizing their own schools.

Fig. 1: Google Map 3D vs. Energy3D
Sure, students are not professional engineers and adults may not trust them when making serious investments in solar energy. But there is a safe way to let them try: Computer simulation allows students to model and design solar panel arrays for their schools without incurring any cost, risk, or injury.

Fig. 2: 88-panel arrays on CHS's roof.
There have been scores of software programs for professional solar designers. But they usually cost $1,000 per license or annual subscription as their market is really a small niche. In addition to this cost barrier for schools, most of these tools do not necessarily cover education standards or support student learning. Thanks to the National Science Foundation, there is now a powerful free alternative for all students and teachers -- Energy3D. A one-stop shop for solar power design and simulation, Energy3D is an extremely versatile CAD tool that can be used to design rooftop solar solutions for not only average homes but also large buildings (you probably have also seen that it can be used to design utility-scale concentrated solar power stations as well). Importantly, Energy3D provides excellent 3D graphics, rich visualizations, and powerful analytical tools that support scientific inquiry and engineering design at fundamental levels. These features make Energy3D a perfect tool for engaging students and fostering learning.

Fig. 3: Solar irradiance map (June 22)
We are collaborating with Charlottesville High School (CHS) in Virginia to plan for a pilot test of the Solarize Your School project, in which students will learn science and engineering concepts and principles through designing large-scale solar panel arrays that achieve optimal cost effectiveness. To make sure every student has the same building to solarize, I sketched up an Energy3D model of CHS as shown in Figure 1 to provide to students as the starting point. If you want to do this for your own school, you can import a Google Map image of the school using the Geo-Location Menu in Energy3D. After the map image shows up in the view, you can draw directly on top of it to get the basic shape right. While it may not be possible to get the exact heights in Google Map, you can use the elevation data provided by Google Earth to calculate the heights of the walls and roofs.

CHS currently has six arrays of solar panels installed on their roof. Five arrays have 88 panels each and one has 10. The panels are arranged in three rows, with the portrait orientation and a tilt angle of 10 degrees (Figure 2). All the panels are 240W AP-240 PK from Advanced Solar Photonics (ASP). Their solar cell efficiency is 14.82%. Their temperature coefficient of Pmax (a property that measures the decrease of solar output when the temperature rises) is -0.4%/°C. Their size is 1650 x 992 x 50 mm. Each panel has three internal bypass diodes. The arrays use REFUsol string inverters to convert electricity from DC to AC, meaning that these arrays probably have little to no tolerance to shade and should be placed away as far from any tall structure as possible. I couldn't find the efficiency of the string inverters, so I chose 90% as it seems typical. I also didn't know the dust level in the area and the cleaning schedule, so I applied 5% of dust loss throughout the year (although the dust loss tends to be higher in the spring due to pollen). Since they went into operation on March 1, 2012, these panels have generated a total of 605 megawatt hours (MWh) as of September 8, 2016, amounting to an average of annual yield at 135 MWh.

Fig. 4: Prediction vs. reality.
I added these solar panel arrays to the Energy3D model with their parameters set for simulation. Figure 3 shows a heat map visualization of solar irradiance on June 22, indicating the ranges of major shading areas. Figure 4 shows the comparison of the predicted output and the actual output in the past 12 months. As some of the arrays were in maintenance for some time in the past year, I picked the highest-performing array and multiplied its output by five to obtain a number that would fairly represent the total yield in the ideal situation. Also note that as there is currently no weather data for Charlottesville, I picked the nearby Lynchburg, which is about 68 miles southwest of Charlottesville, as the location.

The prediction of the total output by Energy3D is a bit higher than the actual output in the past year (139 MWh vs. 130 MWh). If we compare the predicted result with the four-year average, the difference is less (139 MWh vs. 135 MWh). In terms of monthly trend, it seems Energy3D underestimates the winter outputs and overestimates the summer outputs. While the result may be satisfactory for educational use, we will continue to improve the fidelity of Energy3D simulations.