Our Common Online Data Analysis Platform (CODAP) software provides an easy-to-use web-based data analysis tool, geared toward middle and high school students, and aimed at teachers and curriculum developers. CODAP is already full of amazing features. We’re excited to announce several new features! Continue reading
|Fig. 1: Something tall in Negev desert (Credit: Inhabitat)|
Solar thermal power and photovoltaic solar power are two main methods of generating electricity from the sun that are somewhat complementary to each other. Solar tower technology is an implementation of solar thermal power that uses thousands of mirrors to focus sunlight on the top of a tower, producing intense heat that vaporizes water to spin a turbine and generate electricity. The physics principle is the same as a solar cooker that you have probably made back in high school.
Why does the Ashalim solar tower have to be so tall?
Surrounding the tower are approximately 50,000 mirrors that all reflect sun beams to the top of the tower. For this many mirrors to "see" the tower, it has to be tall. This is easy to understand with the following metaphor: If you are speaking to a large, packed crowd in a square, you had better stand high so that the whole audience can see you. If there are children in the audience, you want to stand even higher so that they can see you as well. The adults in this analogy represent the upper parts of mirrors whereas the children the lower parts. If the lower parts cannot reflect sunlight to the tower, the efficiency of the mirrors will be halved.
|Fig. 2: Visualizing the effect of tower height|
|Fig. 3: Daily output graphs of towers of different heights|
|Fig. 4: Energy output vs. tower height|
Note that, the results of the solar power tower simulations in the current version of Energy3D, unlike their photovoltaic counterparts, can only be taken qualitatively. We are yet to build a heat transfer model that simulates the thermal storage and discharge accurately. This task is scheduled to be completed in the first half of this year. By that time, you will have a reliable prediction software tool for designing concentrated solar power plants.
Innovative applications of technology are found virtually everywhere, transforming all kinds of spaces into opportunities for STEM learning that move beyond the walls of classrooms and past schooltime hours. Persistent engagement and interest in meaningful learning activities and practices can spur an enduring pursuit of science.
Our Learning Everywhere initiative is exploring, prototyping, and creating new learning experiences—including exhibits, mobile apps, and user tracking technologies—that connect and coordinate learning across museums and bridge in-school and out-of-school time. To survey new learning spaces and interactive technologies, we visited two of our Learning Everywhere partners, At-Bristol and Exploradôme, as well as other science centers in the London and Paris areas, including the Science Museum of London and the City of Science and Industry at La Villette.
Donning our bracelets printed with unique barcode IDs at the entrance, we explored the many At-Bristol exhibits, scanning our bracelets to collect and compare our data with data from other visitors. At some stations, we learned how the creators of Wallace and Gromit, from Aardman Animations’ studios also in Bristol, made their great movies before creating our own stop-motion animations. A quick scan of our wrists saved these animations to a website where we could access them later. Other parts of our experience, from scatterplots of our height compared to other visitors to videos of ourselves on slow-motion “startle-cam” added themselves into our electronic portfolio during the visit. We even found ourselves wearing bee wings and performing a waggle dance to mimic bee behaviors in an exhibit about the mysterious lives of bees! This and other digital artifacts from our visit served as opportunities for further conversation and inquiry back home, and as a source of fun for our families. (Needless to say, the bee dance video was a source of great enjoyment, but it will not be showing up publicly on Instagram any time soon!)
Our visit to London coincided with the grand opening of Wonder Lab at the Science Museum of London. Our guide, Dave Patten, Head of New Media there, showed us the spacious, colorful interactive gallery designed to encourage visitors to collaborate, play, and learn from conversation. In another exhibition, Engineer Your Future, teens and young adults use their personal mobile devices in public gallery spaces to design vehicles, then launch and control them on a huge public screen! Other large-screen and combined physical-digital exhibits featured different design-oriented and competitive games on energy, vehicle design, and different engineering careers.
Moving farther south, we visited the Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie in Paris, where an immense, airy space houses corners with multiple galleries of permanent and temporary exhibitions. Among them, designed areas invite reflection and discussion among school groups or individuals. In a highlight of the visit, François Vescia, Senior International Project Manager at the museum, gave us a tour of their fabrication laboratory, Carrefour Numerique. This public space is a wonderland of design and making, custom created to invite design collaboration and discussions that merge seamlessly into design and construction of physical prototypes and objects. Visitors access materials and machinery from e-textile design, milling machines, 3D printers, and laser and vinyl cutters to turn their visions into reality. Drop-in and scheduled programs and workshops and in-person support are available, and visitors can begin designing projects digitally in the multimedia lab, then move next door to fabricate them.
Taking the train to the southern suburbs of Paris, we visited the Exploradôme, where we met Goery Delacote, its founder and a longstanding member of the Concord Consortium Board of Trustees. Goery toured us among the great exhibits packed into the floor of this small museum, where the motto is “Not touching is not allowed!” Playing like kids (and some of us were!), we explored visual perception phenomena, dug holes for water in a version of the AR Sandbox Sherry helped create and worked together to launch six-foot smoke rings that rose to the ceiling.
The thoughtful curation and orchestration of interactive exhibits throughout our Learning Everywhere tour was inspiring, as was the innovative use of technology to engage visitors and extend museum experiences beyond the visit. As we collate and catalog these experiences and technologies as part of the project work, we look forward to working further with museums and other out-of-school institutions to bridge and extend learning everywhere.
The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) provide a framework and examples of three-dimensional learning. Soon after they were released, we created the NGSS Pathfinder to help educators find their way through the core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and science and engineering practices that make up the NGSS. This intuitive tool allows you to consider some of the myriad paths possible, and links to free Concord Consortium resources for any given path.
We’ve had lots of positive feedback about the NGSS Pathfinder, including many requests for a printable version. And since we love to give educational resources away for free, we’ve made a printable version of the Pathfinder available. Feel free to use it for handouts, full-size posters, or anything else. We’re especially excited about the idea of people creating laminated posters so they can draw their own paths!
As always, you can continue to use the online NGSS Pathfinder to create interactive links from core ideas to science and engineering practices and crosscutting concepts, and get access to free resources for your selected path. Our computational models and probe-based activities bring important learning within new reach. Students using such technology-based activities also gain wide experience with crosscutting concepts—from scales in space and time to energy and systems—across domains in science, math, and engineering.
The NGSS Pathfinder graphics are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license (CC BY 4.0), so you’re welcome to use them under those terms. If you share the graphics online, please attribute the Concord Consortium and include a link to https://concord.org.
Geoscience poses many questions. Why are there continents and oceans? How do mountains form? Why do volcanoes form in some areas and not others? What causes earthquakes to be more frequent in some areas than others? Why are oil, diamond, gold, and other deposits clustered in particular areas rather than being spread evenly across the world?
Teaching geoscience poses significant challenges. Experiments with Earth’s geology are impossible, and many of the natural processes that shape Earth, such as sedimentation, folding, and faulting, take place out of sight, over unimaginably long time periods. We think that technology has the potential help to transform how geoscience is taught and understood.
From the people who brought you High-Adventure Science comes the GEODE (Geological Models for Explorations of Dynamic Earth) project. Funded by the National Science Foundation, the new project aims to design dynamic, interactive, computer-based models and curricula to help students understand how Earth’s surface and subsurface features are shaped. As in the High-Adventure Science modules, GEODE modules will incorporate real-world data and computational models, with a focus on making scientific arguments based on evidence.
The GEODE project, a partnership between the Concord Consortium and The Pennsylvania State University, held a kickoff brainstorming session Monday, September 27. Principal Investigator Amy Pallant and Co-PI Hee-Sun Lee, both of the Concord Consortium, and Co-PI Scott McDonald of Penn State organized a meeting to begin developing a plate tectonics model to accompany the recently developed Seismic Explorer.
Professional geologists, geoscience educators, and software developers reviewed the currently available models and simulations of plate motion, earthquake waves, sedimentation, folding, and faulting, and discussed ways to make these concepts accessible to middle and high school students.
We look forward to sharing more models and activities as they are developed over the next few years!
|Fig. 1: Single rack|
|Fig. 2: Multiple racks|
If you have more space, you probably can install multiple racks (Figure 2), especially when you are considering using altazimuth dual-axis solar trackers to drive them. This configuration is also seen in some large photovoltaic power stations.
|Fig. 3: Rack arrays|
|Fig. 4: Solar canopy above a parking lot|
Designing solar canopies for schools' parking lots may be a great engineering project for students to undertake. This is being integrated into our Solarize Your School Project. In fact, Figure 4 shows a real project in Natick High School in Massachusetts. The hypothetical design has more than 1,500 solar panels (each of them has the size of 0.99 x 1.96 m) and costs over a million dollars.
Chemists often rely on visually striking color changes shown by pH, redox, and other indicators to detect or track chemical changes. About six years ago, I realized that IR imaging may represent a novel class of universal indicators that, instead of using halochromic compounds, use false color heat maps to visualize any chemical process that involves the absorption, release, or distribution of thermal energy (see my original paper published in 2011). I felt that IR thermography could one day become a powerful imaging technique for studying chemistry and biology. As the technique doesn't involve the use of any chemical substance as a detector, it could be considered as a "green" indicator.
|Fig. 1: IR-based differential thermal analysis of freezing point depression|
|Fig. 2: IR-based differential thermal analysis of enzyme kinetics|
The research will focus on finding robust evidence of learning due to IR imaging, with the goal to identify underlying cognitive mechanisms and recommend effective strategies for using IR imaging in chemistry education. This study will be conducted for a diverse student population at BGSU, Boston College, Bradley University, Owens Community College, Parkland College, St. John Fisher College, and SUNY Geneseo.
Partial support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Improving Undergraduate STEM Education (IUSE) program under Award No. 1626228. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Paul Horwitz, senior scientist, got his start in research earlier than most — when he was three! We’ve enjoyed his stories for many years. This one was too good not to share. One day at lunch we decided to follow up on his memories and dig a little deeper. We contacted Lindsey Wyckoff at Bank Street College, who sent us this story from their archives. Here is Paul’s story:
It’s July 1942. Hitler’s armies have conquered most of continental Europe and are about to unleash their fury on the Russian city of Stalingrad. England has survived the “blitz” but thousands of frantic British parents have allowed their children to be evacuated, some as far away as Canada. In New York the Bank Street Nursery School, under the auspices of the Office of Civilian Defense, has embarked on an ambitious experiment. Forty-five preschool children, ages two to five, will be “evacuated” for six weeks to Lake Waneta in upstate New York in order to evaluate whether the trauma of being separated from their parents outweighs the risk of exposing them to possible attack.
I was one of those children.
I was three and a half, far too young to understand what was happening to me, much less why, but the weeks I spent at “camp” that year are among my earliest memories. And the memories, by and large, are good ones.
I remember being introduced to a special kind of photosensitive paper that could record the silhouettes of objects placed upon it. I remember kicking my legs in shallow water, thinking guiltily that I had tricked my parents into believing I could swim. I have a hazy memory of a newsreel crew with a huge camera that moved back and forth on wheels.
I have no recollection of the battery of psychological tests that must have been run on me, though I do remember my answer to one question: in a race would you rather be first or last? (I chose last, on the basis that that way I wouldn’t always be looking behind me to see whether someone was catching up.)
I have since learned that the experiment was a success: given proper care, including cuddle time as well as meals, young children proved unexpectedly resilient. So no permanent damage was done, though I very much doubt that one could attempt this kind of thing today. In the end, as we know now, no evacuation of New York or any other American city was deemed necessary. The broad Atlantic and the absence of aircraft carriers from the German fleet offered protection enough in that long ago time. But today, as we learn to cope with sporadic and unpredictable violence resulting from a protracted “war on terror,” it is perhaps instructive to remember that we have survived much worse.
|Fig. 1 Solar panel arrays rotated by HSATs|
|Fig. 2 Compare daily outputs of HSAT, AADAT, and fixed in four seasons.|
|Fig. 3 Compare annual outputs of HSAT, AADAT, and fixed.|
|Fig. 4 Compare wide- and narrow-spacing of HSAT arrays|
An important factor to consider in solar farm design is the choice of the inter-row spacing to avoid significant energy loss due to shading of adjacent rows in early morning and late afternoon. But you don't want the distance between two rows to be too far as the rows will occupy a large land area that makes no economic sense. With Energy3D, we can easily investigate the change of the energy output with regard to the change of the inter-row spacing. Figure 4 shows the gain from HSAT is greatly reduced when the rows are too close, essentially eliminating the advantages of using solar trackers. Despite of their ability to track the sun, HSATs still require space to achieve the optimal performance.
|Computer modeling with Energy3D|
|Poster session with parents|
|A 3D house created and studied in the event|
The parents were generally very supportive. Some even helped their kids measure the dimensions of their houses (unfortunately, Google Earth does not provide sufficient information for students to retrieve the geometry of their houses; so some kids must learn how to measure the heights of their roofs using other methods such as photogrammetry).
|3D houses created by kids|
As a side note, I noticed an interesting response from a parent: "She enjoyed using the software to design our house. She said it was an interesting topic, but she cautioned me not to rely solely on her calculations to base our decision on whether to convert to solar energy use for our house." The kid is right -- all models have limitations and engineers must use caution. A science advisor should inform her advisee that a model may fail.